Hackers last week launched DDoS attacks against both presidential candidates’ campaign websites. The attacks were routed through HTTP Layer 7 of the OSI protocol. There were at least four 30-second attacks reported. “The websites were not penetrated by a cyberintrusion,” said John Costello, a senior analyst at Flashpoint. “They were attacked using their publicly available Web addresses and associated IPs,” he said. The attackers were unsophisticated hackers and not a nation-state.